- A Turning Tide for Trade
Ebru Pakcan has recently been appointed Global Head of Trade, Treasury and Trade Solutions, Citi. In this candid interview, she speaks about the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on trade, and airs her views on the digitisation of trade – from the milestones already reached to the areas still requiring improvement. She also shares her best advice for treasurers when preparing for a return to ‘normal’.
- Central & Eastern Europe’s Digital Treasury Revolution
Treasury organisations and finance shared service centres in Central & Eastern Europe are changing: robots are taking over many of the manual tasks once performed by humans. At the same time, Big Data and predictive analytics are becoming more commonplace. But is treasury at risk of being sidelined in the rush to digitise corporate business models?
- Virtual Cards: The Missing Link for Business Spend Management
Business Spend Management platforms have transformed how companies buy goods and services. Now, the integration of Citi Virtual Card Accounts with Coupa Pay is delivering additional efficiency, visibility, and control benefits across the procure-to-pay process, write Gene Cook, Director of Sales & Business Development, Coupa Pay at Coupa Software and Eric Spencer, Global Head of B2B Cards at Citi Treasury and Trade Solutions.
- Supporting Trade in a time of crisis
Global trade is having to adapt to unprecedented levels of disruption. Yet by combining elements – including digital – banks can play an important role in keeping business moving.
- The Role of Finance and Treasury in ESG: Opportunity for Value Creation in a Rapidly Changing World
In a climate of global disruption, which the world has not seen in decades - many companies around the globe are re-evaluating their business models and strategic priorities. For forward-thinking companies, adopting sustainable practices is proving attractive because they are generally more resilient to shocks, more financially robust, and exhibit greater long-term growth potential. Environmental, social and governance (ESG) agendas are fast becoming a way of demonstrating a company’s value and potential.
- From Clunky to Cool – Innovating Fuel Cards
New technology will liberate company car drivers from carrying multiple fuel cards, and wasting time (and fuel) searching for specific fuel retailers, while offering a modern mobile-first experience. At the same time, it can improve policy compliance, make reconciliation easier and save money for corporates, writes Ritesh Jain, B2B Product Head EMEA, Commercial Cards, Treasury & Trade Solutions at Citi.
- Future of Payments: Ecosystem innovation and transformation in Asia Pacific
Half of the world’s internet users live in Asia Pacific with a median age of just 30 years old. How these digitally savvy consumers pay for goods and services is integral to their digital experience. As a result, Asia has become a crucible, and bellwether, for payment innovation.
- Sustainable Chemistry: How Supplier Finance Can Promote ESG
Shifting consumer sentiment is influencing large corporates to rethink a variety of business processes from an environmental, social, and governance (ESG) perspective. The Chemical industry is no exception. Thankfully, supplier finance can help identify opportunities for sustainability investment..
- Covid-19 and the Disruption of Transaction Banking
This article looks at the disruption to multinational companies and financial institutions caused by Covid-19 exploring themes of digital transformation and new realities for transaction banking. It asks what lessons history can teach us…
- Managing Liquidity During Turbulent Times: Strategies for Cash Management
While the situation that treasurers and finance leaders globally are dealing with is unprecedented, the cash investment fundamentals remain constant: security; liquidity and risk mitigation. At a time when so many issues seem uncertain, going ‘back to basics’ can create greater certainty and confidence in treasurers’ ability to meet the unknown challenges ahead.
- Managing Liquidity During Turbulent Times: Strategies for Managing FX Risk
Corporate and institutional treasurers around the globe are facing unprecedented volatility and unpredictability, both in their own business and the wider markets. In this environment, what new perspectives or approaches should treasurers be taking to manage their exposures?
- Instant Payments Reach an Important Inflection Point, with Asia Leading the Charge
Asia’s payment landscape has crossed an exciting inflection point in the adoption of instant payment solutions across the region, catalyzed by three major trends.
- From 2020 to 2030 Future-Proofing Treasury for the Decade Ahead
Companies worldwide face an environment of change – ranging from new trade dynamics to evolving business models on the back of digitisation. Ron Chakravarti, Global Head of the Treasury Advisory Group, Citi, explains how corporate treasurers can stay ahead of the curve by reviewing treasury structures, technology and talent.
- Stronger Together: How Working with Fintechs Benefits All
Fintechs are often in the headlines and for good reason: over the past decade they have transformed the financial services world and changed how many of us communicate, bank, and buy goods and services — both online and offline.
- Environmental, Social and Governance issues in Consumer and Healthcare Sectors
Companies seem to be in a scramble to integrate ESG strategies into their corporate agendas and burnish their green credentials. Can treasury help? Linking ESG practices to good business and enterprise value isn’t new. Fifty years ago, economist Milton Friedman suggested it could be in a corporation’s long-term interest to offer community amenities or improve government to attract employees, reduce wages and achieve other benefits.1 How is this playing out now?
- Just the ticket: Kenya Airways’ treasury on going digital
Evolving from a passive back office focused function into a proactive leading-edge business partner, Kenya Airways’ treasury explains how it is leveraging digitisation to meet the changing needs of this innovative carrier.
- The Payment Facilitator Model: Extending the Reach of Commercial Cards
Commercial cards have gained considerable ground as a payment tool over the past decade among corporates in EMEA and around the world. For companies, they offer certainty of rapid payment, enhanced visibility of data flows, and improvements in procure-to-pay process efficiency. Perhaps most importantly, commercial cards can deliver significant cashflow and working capital benefits as the corporate benefits from the card billing and payment period) and a potential rebate to the corporate based on their spend.
- Top Priorities for 2020: Time to Future Proof Treasury
Companies worldwide face an environment of change. Global supply chains are being reconfigured in response to a surge in protectionism and trade interventions. The growth outlook is clouded by geopolitical, regulatory and economic uncertainties. Digital disruption is reshaping industry ecosystems, and innovation has become a focus for investors in valuing companies.1 In response, CEOs are transforming their enterprises through digitization.
Citi Voices: Jan Metzger – Subscribing to Convergence
The subscription model can revolutionise supply chains in a way that breaks down sectoral, geographic and cultural barriers, suggests Jan Metzger, Head of Asia Pacific Banking, Capital Markets and Advisory.
Citi Voices: Vanessa Colella – Subscribing to Sustained Innovation
In a world full of seemingly rapid-fire change, it is often slow change that brings about the most paradigm-altering transformations, says Vanessa Colella, Chief Innovation Officer at Citi and Head of Citi Ventures.
Citi Voices: Manish Kohli – Subscribing to Seamless Payments
As subscription becomes a global mega-trend, companies must consider whether they have the right infrastructure in place to drive growth. For many subscription-based businesses, the ability to collect or pay in a particular market determines their ability to do business in that market, says Manish Kohli, Global Head of Payments and Receivables at Citi.
Citi Voices: Will Ross – Subscribing to Intuitive CX
Go back five or ten years and the idea that a consumer could influence a bank’s behaviour would sound like a fairy tale. Now, the challenge for not just financial services but all industries, is closing the loop between customer feedback and business model innovation, says Will Ross, Head of Digital Channels and Experience, Hong Kong.
Citi Voices: Saurabh R Gupta – Subscribing to a New Mindset
The shift to an engagement economy requires leaders to rethink old assumptions about revenue and customer loyalty
Reaching $1 Billion in Financial Inclusion Through Citi Businesses and Clients
In a new study, Citi estimates that 700 – 800 million people will be banked for the first time by 2022, compared to 2017. When we consider that there are 1.7 billion adults worldwide who are unable to use safe, affordable financial services to save for emergencies or grow a small business, a 700 million change is staggering.
Prospering in the Digital World
The pace of technological change in the Middle East, North Africa, Pakistan and Turkey (MENAPT) is accelerating. Smartphones are part of everyday life for millions of people, and corporates across the region are embracing e-commerce opportunities and new business models. At the same time, there is a vibrant fintech scene, with innovative ideas transforming how people and companies interact with each other and make payments.
Commercial Cards Lead the Way in the World of B2B Payments
Commercial cards offer buyers and suppliers numerous benefits. But to realize their full potential and extend their reach, card providers must work with payment facilitators, platforms and other fintechs to offer integrated solutions that deliver incremental value to all parties, writes Sébastien Delasnerie, Head of Commercial Cards, North America at Citi Treasury and Trade Solutions.
What’s next in Working Capital? Receivables Finance Gains Momentum
As trade finance evolves, the focus seems to be shifting to receivables finance, opening up potential new opportunities for corporate clients and banks to help increase volumes, reach a wider range of buyers and improve working capital efficiency, according to Citi’s Adoniro Cestari, Global Head of Trade Finance and Sanjeev Ganjoo, Global Head of Trade Receivable Finance.
Thriving in the 2020 Treasury Ecosystem
As we enter a new decade, treasurers must learn how to juggle their traditional responsibilities alongside the new reality of disrupted business models and game-changing technologies, says Steve Elms, EMEA Region Sales Head, Corporate and Public Sector, Treasury and Trade Solutions, Citi. Proactive engagement with treasury stakeholders – existing and new – will be paramount, together with sustainable business practices and a healthy dose of creative thinking.
Real-time Payments Are Here and Will Fuel Emerging Business Models
In a world full of seemingly rapid-fire change, it is often slow change that brings about the most paradigm-altering transformations, says Vanessa Colella, Chief Innovation Officer at Citi and Head of Citi Ventures.
Disruption hub: Landing innovation in Asia’s corporate travel industry
Marking Citi’s 10th anniversary of its Asia Paciﬁc Commercial Payments Summit, Citi has partnered with The Economist Intelligence Unit to produce this bespoke report surveying 210 C-suite and travel managers in Asia Paciﬁc. The report sheds light on the impacts of technological disruption on corporate travel and how our clients have transformed their business practices utilising new technologies.
Data is King: Creating Greater Insights with Merchant Name Cleansing
We’ve heard the saying and we know it is true. But what does this mean? What is the impact of data on the Commercial Cards industry?
The Need for Speed: Get Ready for Instant Payments
Instant payments are gaining traction, with a growing number of countries introducing solutions. ‘Real time’ looks set to become the new payment standard in the near future, bringing significant benefits for consumers and corporates.
Why Working Capital Matters
The world is changing. Fifteen years ago, it seemed that corporate CEOs were leading their companies in a time of stronger global economic growth. Not surprisingly, capturing that growth was a key priority. Today’s environment appears different – growth is still a priority, but it can be harder to achieve as the global economy slows. Today’s corporate leadership appears to be shifting priorities, and new metrics to measure success have emerged. In the current environment, efficiency is a key focus.
The Future of Trade - Q&A with Vishal Kapoor
Trade in Asia-Pacific – and globally – is being transformed by geopolitical trends and increased intra-regional activity. Banks must respond by changing the ways they support clients and by investing in innovation, according to Vishal Kapoor, Head of Trade, Asia Pacific at Citi.
Treasury Dialogues: Xiaomi - Adaptive, responsive, innovative: exploring the rules of the
‘triathlon’ business model
Corporate business models have undergone substantial changes during the past few years. The most significant driver is digital disruption, which has seen young companies growing at amazing speed by leveraging innovative business models.
Integrated Receivables: The Next Frontier for Working Capital Optimization Article
Today, high-performing organizations are looking for ways to manage their working capital more efficiently. This includes identifying opportunities to tap into additional sources of funding, boost operational efficiency, and increase profitability.
Working Capital Benchmarks
At a time of change, Treasurers can add tremendous shareholder value by engaging in strategies to enhance working capital management.
APIs: A Game Changer in the Digital Transformation
Digitization continues to disrupt and transform organizations of every size and in every industry, as consumers, employees and partners alike expect everything to be on demand and fully connected. As a result, every company and in every industry is highly motivated to make digital transformation a reality. As a leader in digital banking*, Citi is focusing on helping clients achieve this transition in a frictionless and efficient way. While traditionally our dialogue with clients has been with individual departments such as treasury, banking services are now becoming integral to clients’ commercial proposition, expanding this dialogue to the chief digital officer.
Signing up to the subscription economy - The race for recurring revenue in Asia Pacific
The subscription revenue model is no stranger to today’s businesses. The publishing and media industries, for example, have been honing it for a century, if not longer.
The Hyper-Connected Future is Here
India is leading the next ‘mega-shifts’ propelled by digital transformation. A very significant reality of today’s hyper-connected world is the understanding that what got us here will not get us to where we aim to go next. Technology will drive a deep fundamental mega-shift in banking, leading to the era of an ‘invisible bank’. Our world will change more in the next 20 years, than it has in the past 200 years.
The Age of Consent
The Case for Federated Bank ID
Alternative Ways to Improve Working Capital
Are you receiving me? Exploring the ‘dark side’ of the balance sheet
Keeping the Pipeline Full: How Working Capital is Important to Drive Sales Growth
Working capital has always been the lifeblood of a company. Faced with a myriad of macroeconomic and business challenges, corporates across a wide variety of sectors are looking for new ways to drive sales. As a result, many are looking within to harness working capital efficiencies.
Harnessing Advance Analytics,
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to Detect Out-of-the-Ordinary Payment Transactions
Commerce is being conducted around the clock. Supply chains are more global than ever. Payments are growing in volume and gaining speed at an exponential rate, with “instant” promising to become the new norm. However, faster speeds and higher volumes also increase the risk of processing anomalous payments caused by fraudulent activities or operational errors, for example. Preventing outlier payments can be akin to looking for a needle in haystack, and a simple human error can cost companies revenue, precious time or both.
Citi Trade Finance Surging Amid Disruption from Tariff Wars
Trump’s trade wars, Brexit, and geopolitical strife is boosting Citigroup’s trade finance business.
Embracing the Invisible Bank: How Corporates Can Transform Operations
Application programming interfaces (APIs) are transforming the way institutions are conducting business. This
digital technology is allowing companies and banks to be more agile and bring innovations to market faster,
meeting the needs of their customer base. In fact, Forbes reports that 80 percent of large enterprises are
already generating more than $5 million a year from APIs.
Treasury Dialogues: GE - Treasury of the Future
Treasury is on the verge of a great change. It is being driven by a technological revolution that will alter the way it operates. The recent past has witnessed the first steps of treasury’s journey to digitisation, with the use of different technologies such as the banking platform, treasury management systems and trading platforms. These are now considered the standard for best in class operations. Yet, treasury processes are far from being entirely automated or digitised. In some cases, a high level of manual intervention is still required in treasury operations.
Smarter Treasury in MENA: Leapfrogging into the Digital Age
Looking from the outside in, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region still conjures up numerous business stereotypes – from entirely paper-based payment workflows to over-dependence on oil as a driver of economic growth. On the ground, however, these stereotypes are being swiftly overturned as governmental visions for a digital and sustainable future are embraced by citizens and corporates alike.
Supply Chain’s Newest Disruptor: The Platform Economy
The Supply Chain – a simple enough concept that grows in complexity depending on suppliers, geographies, and relationships – can either be an accretive asset to a company’s balance sheet, or a drag on resources. Getting the right model in place and moving from a cost center to a profit center is at the heart of every Finance team’s goals. Citi is applying some new perspectives, harnessing the benefits of a Platform-based strategy, to create partnerships and innovations in the market to translate this vision into reality.
Trade Around the World: Digitization in Trade and
the Future of Shared Service Centers in Central
and Eastern Europe
The Central and Eastern European (CEE) region has long established itself as a prime location for centralizing treasury and trade functions through Shared Service Centres (SSC). The region is rich with resources due to its highly educated, multi-lingual workforce; investment in technology and infrastructure, and its advantageous location bridging east and west time zones in the heart of Europe.
Asia’s Best Bank For Transaction Services
Citi remains the name to beat in regional transaction services.
Citi named World’s Best Bank for Transaction Services
In an industry of fast-paced change, this is the bank that is not only engaged with but driving change for the benefit of its customers.
Shared Service Centers: Leveraging digital to drive efficiency and value creation
New technologies offer potential cost savings, efficiency gains and control benefits for shared service centers (SSCs). However, corporates need to plan carefully to realize their goals.
Instant is the New Norm: Mega shifts are taking place in the world of commerce
A sea change in customer expectations, in supply chain relationships, and in technology infrastructures are part of a zeitgeist where the hallmarks of success include speed, convenience and transparency – for both corporations and their banks.
A Treasurer’s Guide to the Future of Money
To be ‘in your element’ means to be right where you want to be, where you can deploy your skills and expertise to achieve your objectives.
Welcome to the Invisible Bank and the Era of Frictionless Connectivity
By harnessing the vast amounts of data available, technology promises to simplify everything we do by understanding our needs and preferences, and offering insightful recommendations or reducing mundane tasks.
Unlocking Africa - Treasury Holds the Key
Africa is a continent of vast opportunity. But leveraging the African success story requires genuine insight into the disruptive trends that are helping to shape Africa’s transformation. A recent Citi roundtable highlighted how treasury is evolving on both sides of the continent, and how treasurers can play a role in putting Africa firmly on the corporate map.
Strategizing in an Environment of Instant Everything. How do Instant Payments and Virtual Card Accounts Fit In?
Immediate payments are quickly becoming the norm in today’s hyper-connected world.
Trends in digital banking – interview with Lola Adebanji, eCommerce director at Citi
Preparing for a real-time world, open banking regulation and cyber risk will be top challenges banks face in the next 1-3 years – according to Lola Adebanji.
Next gen treasury? It’s your call. The hot topic at Mobile World Congress this year was 5G. Find out more about its impact.
The sectors of technology, media and telecommunications are among the most dynamic and for treasurers operating in these intertwining sectors, staying ahead of the curve is essential. With some game-changing announcements at February’s Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona – the telecommunications industry’s main event of the year – arguably the hottest of topics was the gathering momentum behind the roll-out of 5G mobile.
Working Capital Management
Artificial intelligence, machine learning, big data, robotics, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things (IoT) are just some of the technology trends that are viewed to be fueling a digital transformation that is expected to influence nearly every sector and every region of the globe.
A 'hidden asset' at Citigroup
A 'hidden asset' at Citigroup has given the bank a dominant position in the fastest-growing business on Wall Street — but challengers are knocking at the door
Time to Go Mobile: Institutions Must Embrace Banking “Anytime, Anywhere” to Remain Competitive
Mobile banking, with its incremental security features, increases institutions’ productivity and enhances users’ convenience. Companies that delay the adoption are missing out on the convenience of mobile technologies and putting themselves at a competitive disadvantage.
Trade Around the World: Mitigating Rising Supply Chain Risks in Evolving Economies
The use of supply chain finance, sales finance and electronic trade loans can help provide corporates with a valuable toolset to navigate today’s unpredictable geopolitical landscape.
Digital disruption: advantage treasury! Insights from the Consumer and Pharma sectors
Digitisation has transformed many industries over recent years. Treasurers in Pharma and FMCG industries should begin reaping the benefits.
Digital Disruption and the Future of Treasury
Driven by digitization, connectivity and collaborative ecosystems, many industries are seeing longstanding boundaries blurring or dissolving altogether. The art of the possible is expanding, opening the door to entirely new business models. Treasury needs to adapt to the impacts on liquidity, funding and risk management needs as new business models change the company. This has already been happening in some industries and seems set to become even more pervasive.
U.S. Tax Reform: Considerations for Your Treasury Operations
The recently enacted U.S. Tax Reform legislation is the most sweeping change to the tax code since President Reagan signed the Tax Reform Act in 1986. Commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“The Act”), this new law holds profound implications for businesses, particularly multinational corporations based in the U.S. The Act is specifically designed to remove the “lock out” effect for bringing back large amounts of capital that have accumulated offshore for decades with the intention of encouraging U.S. corporations to spend these funds in the U.S. to spur job creation and to expand the manufacturing base.
Shaping the Treasury Agenda in a Digital Age
Digital transformation is shaping our world to an extent that we have not seen since the industrial revolution; arguably, however, the potential for change is even greater, ultimately across every industry and every region. Not only are new technologies being used to automate existing processes, but we are seeing fundamental changes in the way that businesses engage, transact and exchange value with customers and suppliers, how they use data to shape their value proposition and the emergence of entirely new industries.
Automating treasury: taking a fresh look
In every industry, technology is making possible things that once seemed impossible. Terry Dennis, EMEA Cash Management Sales Head, Corporate and Public Sector, Treasury and Trade Solutions at Citi, explores how new technology is accelerating change and creating new opportunities within corporate treasury.
Working capital and other challenges faced by Corporates in today's complex environment
Over the past decade, many corporates have adjusted their financing strategies as the availability and cost of capital have changed due to a number of factors, including market, regulatory and economic transformations.
Africa Corporate Treasury – Who is your Catalyst for Innovation?
As treasury capabilities continue to mature in 2018, regularly re-evaluating corporate strategies and counterparties will be imperative. Only by capitalising on increasingly sophisticated developments such as instant payment systems, data analytic tools and by working with the right partners to support growth, can the new era of corporate treasury in Africa truly take shape. Geoffrey Gursel, Sub-Saharan Africa Sales and Implementations Head, Treasury and Trade Solutions, Citi, explains why 2018 is the perfect time to review and refine treasury operations in Africa, whilst maximising the value of bank relationships across the continent.
Treasury Transformation through Banking Partners
Building "on behalf of structures" to create enterprise-wide value at Roche
The Not-So-Quiet API Revolution Comes to Banking
2017 has been dubbed the year of the API economy. Organizations are increasingly tying executive performance results with the creation of new business models that rely on new technology and IT platforms. This is a trend that is expected to accelerate in the near future. Various technology companies have disrupted their respective marketplaces, having utilized Application Programming Interface (API) technology, and today's financial services industry is just now embracing these new technologies that promise to transform the business.
Data and Digitization: Transforming Corporate Treasury
Corporate treasury teams should prioritize setting a strategy for using data and digitization to transform how they operate, writes Ron Chakravarti, global head of treasury advisory, Treasury and Trade Solutions, Citi. Meanwhile, Martin Schlageter, head of treasury operations at Roche, explains how digitization is core to shaping what treasury achieves...
The 2018 Forecast: Wear Sunscreen, Take your Umbrella
In this edition, Steve Elms continues his annual series in which he outlines his thoughts for the year ahead. In recent years, the focus has been managing risk and improving efficiency during an extended period of uncertainty and turbulence. As Steve describes, the forecast for 2018 seems brighter, and treasurers need to support and facilitate growth without being complacent about ongoing instability and risk.
Your Guide to the Real-Time Payments Revolution
The biggest trend in financial services right now is not fintech nor the blockchain; it is the move from batch to real-time. This is the view of Tony McLaughlin, Managing Director, Emerging Payments and Business Development, Treasury and Trade Solutions at Citi. In this article, he charts a course for the payments industry, providing some action points for treasurers.
By Land and Sea - China's Belt and Road Initiative
China'S Belt and Road initiative brings wide-ranging opportunities for neighbouring countries, particularly their business and finance sectors, as David Aldred, Yusuf Ali Khan and Jagadeshwaran Kothandapani explain.
Challenges in the consumer and healthcare sectors: treasury to the rescue?
While the consumer and healthcare sectors are driven by different dynamics, both face pressure on margins. By leveraging cash and treasury management solutions, the treasurer can play a critical role in countering these challenges, according to Peter Cunningham, EMEA Head of Consumer & Healthcare Sales, Treasury and Trade Solutions, Citi.
Exciting Times Ahead - An interview with Ebru Pakcan, EMEA Head of TTS, Citi
In November 2016, Ebru Pakcan was appointed as Citi’s Head of Treasury and Trade Solutions (TTS) for the EMEA region. Based in London, Pakcan is responsible for leading and developing the EMEA TTS franchise and driving business throughout the region. Here she shares her experiences of her first few months in the role and outlines how Citi aims to build on its success in the region.
PSD2+ A new era of opportunity
The EU's revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) will be implemented in January 2018 and provide non-banks with free access to payment initiation from bank accounts, subject to account holder consent. PSD2 creates a new Request to Pay (RTP) capability that is of significant interest to merchants and to the fintechs providing them with payment services.
Supporting Treasury Through the M&A Journey
The past year has seen particularly strong levels of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) as corporations across a wide range of industries seek to boost growth, fuelled by a combination of large cash reserves and low funding costs. Treasury has a key role to play in the success of M&A transactions, from funding and monitoring acquisition flows upfront through to optimising liquidity, treasury operations and risk management in the longer term. In this article, Terry Dennis and Declan McGivern discuss some of the factors that help treasurers to contribute to M&A success.
The treasury of tomorrow, today
In a time of great change, corporate treasury professionals in Asia Pacific need not only a bank, but a banking partner. In this article, Citi outlines how it is supporting its clients in new and imaginative ways across cash, liquidity and trade.
Simplifying Transactional FX and Payments at General Electric
Every organization operating internationally, whether a large multinational or a small/medium-sized enterprise, is obliged to manage foreign currency (FX) payment obligations, and the associated risks. This brings particular challenges in Asia Pacific given the differences in currency dynamics and regulatory conditions across the region. Furthermore, smaller companies typically lack the treasury resources and expertise of their larger peers, but companies of all sizes face the issue of managing multiple currencies in a volatile environment