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Sustainable Cities

Beacons of Light Against the Shadow of Unplanned Urbanization


As Theodore Parker once said, "Cities have always been the fireplaces of civilization, whence light and heat radiated out into the dark." While great cities have shaped our civilizations over the millennia, sucking in resources both natural and human before radiating hem out to the world through commerce and culture, this received wisdom that 'cities are the engines of growth' is, we believe, failing.

Cities may generate 80% of global GDP currently, but while they have historically pulled in resources as they grew via industrialization, this phase of urbanization is being driven as much by populations being pushed into cities by rural poverty and depravation. This switch to 'growth being the engine of cities' has profound implications: it is the people that need the city, not the city that needs the people.

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